An investigation how stream characteristics change as you progress downstream

A[ edit ] abiotic - non-living chemical and physical factors of the environment see also biotic.

An investigation how stream characteristics change as you progress downstream

Conditions at Approximately From Report from the Reconstruction Committee: Smokeview Smokeview is a visualization program used to provide a graphical display of a FDS model simulation in the form of an animation or snapshot.


Snapshots illustrate conditions in a specific plane or slice within the building. Three vertical slices are important to understanding the fire dynamics involved in the Cherry Road incident: Imagine that the building is cut open along the slice and that you can observe the temperature, oxygen concentration, or velocity of gas movement within that plane.

National Institute for Standards and Technology. In addition to having an influence on heat release rate, the location and configuration of exhaust and inlet openings determines air track movement of smoke and air and the path of fire spread.

An investigation how stream characteristics change as you progress downstream

In this incident, the patio door providing access to the basement at the rear acted as an inlet, providing additional air to the fire. The front door and windows on the first floor opened for ventilation served as exhaust openings and provided a path for fire travel when the conditions in the basement rapidly transitioned to a fully developed fire.


Figures illustrate conditions at seconds into the simulation, which relates to approximately Data is presented as a snapshot within a specific slice.

Adapted from Measurements of the firefighting environment.

Selepak,Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Compartment Fire Thermal Hazards The temperature of the atmosphere i. However, gas temperature in the fire environment is a bit more complex than it might appear on the surface and is only part of the thermal hazard presented by compartment fire.

Tissue temperature and depth of penetration determine the severity of a thermal burn. Temperature and penetration are dependent on the amount of energy absorbed and the duration of the thermal insult as well as the properties of human tissue.

In a compartment fire, firefighters absorb energy from any substance that has a temperature above 37o C The dominant mechanisms of heat transfer involved in this process are convection and radiation although conduction through personal protective equipment is also a factor to be considered.

The total thermal energy received is described in joules per unit area. However, the speed or rate of energy is transferred may be more important when assessing thermal hazard. One way to understand the interrelated influence of radiant and convective heat transfer is to consider the following scenario.

Imagine that you are standing outside in the shade on a hot, sunny day when the temperature is 38o C o F. As the ambient temperature is higher than that of your body, energy will be transferred to you from the air. If you move out of the shade, your body will receive additional energy as a result of radiant heat transfer from the sun.

Convective heat transfer is influenced by gas temperature and velocity.


When hot gases are not moving or the flow of gases across a surface such as your body or personal protective equipment is slow, energy is transferred from the gases to the surface lowering the temperature of the gases, while raising surface temperature.

These lower temperature gases act as an insulating layer, slowing heat transfer from higher temperature gases further away from the surface. When velocity increases, cooler gases which have already transferred energy to the surface move away and are replaced by higher temperature gases.

When velocity increases sufficiently to result in turbulent flow, hot gases remain in contact with the surface on a relatively constant basis, increasing convective heat flux.Product and Process Design Principles - Seider - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.

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An investigation how stream characteristics change as you progress downstream

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Seven Firefighters Injured. Seven firefighters were tragically injured in Prince George’s County Maryland on Friday, February 24, The fire broke out in the basement of a single-family, one-story house located at 57 th Avenue in Riverdale, MD shortly after hours..

Note: View from Alpha-Bravo Corner street side. Photo by Billy McNeel.

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