In this literature review the characteristics and consequences of globalization will be discussed. Child labour was listed by them as an effect of the globalization process.
The changed international context is crucial to understanding the problem of child labour.
It is not accidental that the present focus on the problem is taking place at a time when most of the countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and eastern Europe have had, in the face of a mounting economic and political crisis to adopt policies of structural adjustment which consciously attempt to change the nature of economic relationship in these societies.
Needless to say that structural adjustment programmes have been forced upon the developing nations by the IMF and WB as part of a package deal for being bailed out of the debt crisis. As a consequence of structural adjustment programmes, there has been a fundamental shift in the very perception of development from models with an emphasis on state intervention, import substitution and a commitment on the part of the state to social welfare towards a model which upholds greater integration in the world economy, a deification of the market as the only arbiter of efficiency and growth and an abdication of the responsibility of the state for the welfare of its citizens.
An integral element in the neo-liberal paradigm is that growth is crucial and that this growth will slowly trickle down to the poor in the long run. One important consequence of this has been a shift in the very manner in which human development is perceived.
Specifically, domestic factors such as unequal land distribution, insecure and inequitous tenancy agreements, a skewed distribution of income, misuse of public finance and the socio-cultural marginalisation of entire sections of the population on religious, class and ethnic grounds have a far greater influence on standards of living than the growth - or the decline - of the overall economy.
But these are further exacerbated by the operation of the international system wherein developing countries are dependent in myriad ways on industrialized nations. There are many other dimensions to the neo-liberal paradigm, some of which has been implicitly critiqued by the editors of the UNICEF study, but what is important for our purposes is that ironically, while a greater integration of structures and processes is taking place, an ideology is being propounded which parcels out social reality into water-tight compartments.
Globalization of the economy is being accompanied by a fragmentation of social vision. This serves to conceal the structural links that bind the different fragments together along with concealing the basic chasm between the North and South that persists and is in fact widening.
We would like in our presentation to focus in an unabashed manner on the structural roots of the phenomena of child labour, its embeddedness in the wider social matrix and thereby its inter-relatedness to wider social processes.
The typical peasant household in India would try to achieve a certain balance between labour and consumption depending upon the size of the family, the number of working members and the size and quality of land owned or worked on. This equilibrium helps the family to exist as a unit in the most trying situations.
Studies have shown that the brunt of the present crisis and shocks of globalization are being born by the families, principally of the poor and within the families - it is the women in the families. The pressures on women to increase family income in the face of inflation and decreasing social sector budgets has resulted in more children being put to work either to substitute for the mother in the domestic chores in the case of girls or to add to the family kitty.
Researches on the impact of structural adjustments policies in the developing countries both on women and children have highlighted the deleterious consequences for the overall situation of children and the tremendous burden that women have to bear in facing the economic and social hardship.
The studies emphasized certain features: This means that at the most critical point in the crisis, there was a marked drop in male employment going hand in hand with an increase - unparalleled in the last few decades - in the presence of women in employment.
This trend is almost certainly a compensatory mechanism to maintain the family economy. Second Edition, Santiago, pp. The impact of the SAP package have negatively affected women with regard to access to basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, to common property resources, access to education and skill formation, implications for total household income of labouring households in different sectors and the gender-based distribution within households, access to needs for reproduction and nurture of the young including not only health care but also child care, access to productive employment outside the home, control over the allocation of resources both socially and within the households.
All of these have been affected adversely not only because of a reduction in government expenditure but also from the general withdrawal of the state from provision of goods and services and a greater reliance on market mechanisms. The move from formal employment to informal employment and from the public to private sectors favours the feminization of employment at the margins but always in more insecure and poorly paid and more onerous conditions.
Thus structural adjustment policies lead to fall in real wages, unemployment and reduced availability of and cuts in subsidies on basic goods and services.
All this affects woman in their role as producers, mothers, household managers, community organizers and the implications are invariably negative in terms of reduced incomes, standard of living and a greater burden on unpaid work Ghosh, Jayati, Three sets of variables have been isolated in the production of child welfare:The number of children forced to labor in the cacao plantations is small.
In , the US State Department, Knight Ridder and the BBC reported that some 15, children worked in conditions of forced labor picking beans in Ghana and the Ivory Coast. Keywords: Child labor, globalization, trade, FDI, developing countries.
Introduction The child labor participation rates decrease in the world in general and this tendency is. Globalization and Child Labour. Vasanthi Raman. The discussion on child's right and child labour is taking place in a particular international context, i.e.
that of globalisation. The impact of economic globalization on low-income families in the global North and South provides the context for this article, which focuses primarily on the exploitation of child labor in agriculture, manufacturing, and the sex tranceformingnlp.com article reviews the relationship between economic globalization, poverty, and child labor, and highlights the ineffectiveness of domestic laws and.
Child labour is a very real problem in the world today, and although it is declining, progress is happening at a slow and unequal pace. Child labour by the International Labour Organization is defined as “work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that.
Globalization increases employment opportunities specially in developing countries due to the rapid increase in foreign investment. This therefore surges the demand for local labour and higher wages. These changes in the developing economies springing from globalization could further lead to child labour due to earning opportunities.