Gap Analysis Tool 2:
In an organization, these elements of the old could be the compensation system or the approach to performance management. In the second step, the organization "presents a new alternative. The final step in this model is "freezing" which requires that changed behavior be reinforced both formally and informally in the organization.
It is in this step that managers can have a great amount of influence through their use of positive reinforcement. Lewin's model does not explicitly state the notion that simply introducing change will result in the change being adopted or being sustained over the long run.
If an attempt to create change in the organization is unsuccessful, it means that there is a problem in one of the three steps in the model. Batten derived their ideas from project management and they recommend using exploration, planning, action, and integration for planned change.
Exploration occurs when managers confirm the need for change and secure resources needed for it. These resources may be physical or they may be mental, such as managers' expertise. The next step, planning, occurs when key decision makers and experts create a change plan that they then review Nadler and tushman congruence model approve.
Next, action occurs with enactment of the plan. There should be opportunities for feedback during the action phase. Finally, integration begins when all actions in the change plan have taken place.
Integration occurs when the changes have been aligned with the organization and there is some degree of formalization, such as through policies and procedures in the organization.
Kotter identified eight steps every organization must follow in order to reap long-term benefits from organizational change: The first step, establishing a sense of urgency, involves selling the need for change to managers and employees.
Kotter recommends creating a "felt-need" for change in others. The second step is for managers to create a powerful group of people who can work together to enact change. Their power will be a driving force in encourages others to adopt change.
Third, the organization must have a vision that will guide the entirety of the change effort, and this vision must be communicated repeatedly step four —as much as ten times as often as one would expect to.
Steps five through eight occur after the sense of urgency is created, and these steps are easier to delegate or decentralize.
In step five, others in the organization are empowered to act on the vision. Managers should assist in this process by eliminating barriers such as old systems or structures.
Step six asks managers to plan for and to create short-term wins. This means that small improvements should be recognized and celebrated publicly. In step seven, the current improvements are built upon with new projects and resources. Finally, in step eight, the new approaches should be institutionalized; that is, they should become a routine path to organizational success.
The change formula is a mathematical representation of the change process see Exhibit 1. The basic notion is that, for change to occur, the costs of change X must be outweighed by dissatisfaction with the status quo Athe desirability of the proposed change Band the practicality of the change D.
There will be resistance to change if people are not dissatisfied with the current state of the organization Aor if the changes are not seen as an improvement Bif the change cannot be done in a feasible way Dor the cost is far too high X.
The multiplicative nature of this formula indicates that if any variable is zero or near zero, resistance to change will not be overcome.
In other words, the variables of A, B, and D do not compensate for one another, and when one is very low, the cost of change is likely to be too high.
Nadler and Tushman's model presents the dynamics of what occurs in an organization when we try to change it. The foundation of this model is that of the organization as an open system, in which organizational subsystems are influence by the external environment. The organizational system draws inputs from internal and external sources—such as the organization's own strategy, its resources, and its environment—and transforms them into outputs, such as behavior and performance.
This transformation from inputs to outputs occurs through four organizational elements: The work involves the daily activities carried out by individuals in the organization.
The skills and capabilities of the people involved in the organization are critical. The formal organization is characterized by its structure, its standard procedures, and its policies. The informal organization encompasses things such as norms, values, and political behavior.
In this model, effective change occurs when all four components work, people, formal, and informal organization are managed, because they are all interrelated. A change in the work procedures themselves may not be effective if the people do not have the capabilities to engage in the new practices.Model/Approach Summary Lewin's three-step model Old activities must be unfrozen, a new concept introduced, then new activities must be frozen.
Use the Congruence Model to boost performance and analyze organizational problems by finding the best balance between work, people, structure, and culture. The Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model is particularly strong in terms of Inputs, and I would like you to analyze Starbucks organization's key inputs.
Start by reading the article as below: Nadler, D.A. & Tushman, M.L. () A. The Congruence Model was developed in the early s by organizational theorists David A. Nadler and Michael L. Tushman. It's a powerful tool for identifying the root causes of performance issues.
It's a powerful tool for identifying the root causes of performance issues.
A. Diagnosis in three steps Nadler and Tushman use three steps for diagnosis: Identify the system Determine the nature of the key variables Diagnose the state of fits B. Model elements Being an open-systems model there are three main sections: Inputs Transformation p.
OT Congruence Model Nadler Tushman - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.