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In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children. As the basic unit for raising children, Anthropologists most generally classify family organization as matrifocal a mother and her children ; conjugal a husband, his wife, and children; also called nuclear family ; avuncular a brother, his sister, and her children ; or extended family in which parents and children co-reside with other members of one parent's family.
However, producing children is not the only function of the family; in societies with a sexual division of labor, marriageand the resulting relationship between two people, it is necessary for the formation of an economically productive household.
Kinship terminologies include the terms of address used in different languages or communities for different relatives and the terms of reference used to identify the relationship of these relatives to ego or to each other.
Kin terminologies can be either descriptive or classificatory. When a descriptive terminology is used, a term refers to only one specific type of relationship, while a classificatory terminology groups many different types of relationships under one term. For example, the word brother in English-speaking societies indicates a son of one's same parent; thus, English-speaking societies use the word brother as a descriptive term referring to this relationship only.
In many other classificatory kinship terminologies, in contrast, a person's male first cousin whether mother's brother's son, mother's sister's son, father's brother's son, father's sister's son may also be referred to as brothers.
The major patterns of kinship systems that are known which Lewis Henry Morgan identified through kinship terminology in his work Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family are: Iroquois kinship also known as "bifurcate merging" Crow kinship an expansion of bifurcate merging Omaha kinship also an expansion of bifurcate merging Eskimo kinship also referred to as "lineal kinship" Hawaiian kinship also referred to as the "generational system" Sudanese kinship also referred to as the "descriptive system" [ citation needed ] There is a seventh type of system only identified as distinct later: Dravidian kinship the classical type of classificatory kinshipwith bifurcate merging but totally distinct from Iroquois.
Most Australian Aboriginal kinship is also classificatory. The six types Crow, Eskimo, Hawaiian, Iroquois, Omaha, Sudanese that are not fully classificatory Dravidian, Australian are those identified by Murdock prior to Lounsbury's rediscovery of the linguistic principles of classificatory kin terms.
Descent rules[ edit ] In many societies where kinship connections are important, there are rules, though they may be expressed or be taken for granted. There are four main headings that anthropologists use to categorize rules of descent. They are bilateral, unilineal, ambilineal and double descent.
A good example is the Yakurr of the Crossriver state of Nigeria. Unilineal rules affiliates an individual through the descent of one sex only, that is, either through males or through females. They are subdivided into two: Most societies are patrilineal.
Examples of a matrilineal system of descent are the Nyakyusa of Tanzania and the Nair of KeralaIndia. Many societies that practise a matrilineal system often have a patrilocal residence and men still exercise significant authority.
Ambilineal or Cognatic rule affiliates an individual with kinsmen through the father's or mother's line. Some people in societies that practise this system affiliate with a group of relatives through their fathers and others through their mothers.
The individual can choose which side he wants to affiliate to. The Samoans of the South Pacific are an excellent example of an ambilineal society.
The core members of the Samoan descent group can live together in the same compound.
Double descent refers to societies in which both the patrilineal and matrilineal descent group are recognized. In these societies an individual affiliates for some purposes with a group of patrilineal kinsmen and for other purposes with a group of matrilineal kinsmen.
The most widely known case of double descent is the Afikpo of Imo state in Nigeria. Although patrilineage is considered an important method of organization, the Afikpo considers matrilineal ties to be more important.
Descent groups[ edit ] A descent group is a social group whose members talk about common ancestry. A unilineal society is one in which the descent of an individual is reckoned either from the mother's or the father's line of descent.
With matrilineal descent individuals belong to their mother's descent group. Matrilineal descent includes the mother's brother, who in some societies may pass along inheritance to the sister's children or succession to a sister's son.
With patrilineal descentindividuals belong to their father's descent group. Societies with the Iroquois kinship system, are typically uniliineal, while the Iroquois proper are specifically matrilineal. In a society which reckons descent bilaterally bilinealdescent is reckoned through both father and mother, without unilineal descent groups.
Societies with the Eskimo kinship system, like the InuitYupikand most Western societies, are typically bilateral. The egocentric kindred group is also typical of bilateral societies.In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Anthropologist Robin Fox states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life – mating, gestation, parenthood, socialization, siblingship etc.
Significance of Individuals in Changing Relationships between the World Powers in the Period Family Relationships in an Aging Society 1. Martie Gillen, Terry Mills, How the family structure is changing through the years.
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We need to understand the significance of Relationship. How one thing relates to another has the entire world to do with function & productivity.
|Aging in the 21st Century||Indeed, we might go so far as to say that the Course is a course in how to have real relationships. The Course aims to bring us out of the illusion of separation and into the reality of oneness.|
|Kinship - Wikipedia||Beyond the basic need for a sense of controlwe are deeply driven by our sense of identity, of who we are. We are in the middle of our individual world, where we place central importance on our sense of individual self.|
|IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:||Brett Laursen The Journalhttp: Interpersonal Contexts of Adolescent Development W.|
The Value of Intimate Relationships and the Challenge of Conflict Frank Howe Longwood College Farmville, Virginia Individuals in healthy relationships see Individuals typically will work earnestly to prevent this.
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